REDUCED FORMS OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
A / who / which / that ———> subject
* Relative clauses (Active) : V.ing . . .
* Relative clauses (Passive) : V3 / ed . . .
* the only to verb . . . (active)
ordinal number (the first, the second, the third . . . ) + relative clauses :
superlative comparison to be + V3 / ed . . . (passive)
Examples :
1 . People who travel to work by bus often buy their tickets in advance.
People travelling to work by bus often buy their tickets in advance.
2 . The man who came to see me last night is standing overthere.
The man coming to see me last night is standing overthere.
3 . The man who was sentenced to 40 years in prison had taken part in the bank robbery.
The man sentenced to 40 years in prison had taken part in the Great bank robbery.
4 . The book which was bought by my father last week is on wild life.
The book bought by my father last week is on wild life.
5 . He was the only person who survived the air crash.
He was the only person to survive the air crash.
6 . The fifth man who was interviewed was quite unsuitable.
The fifth man to be interviewed was quite unsuitable.
7 . This is the largest ship that was built in Vietnam.
This is the largest ship to be built in Vietnam.

NOTE :
  • The boy who is sleeping on the floor is my son.
The boy sleeping on the floor is my son.
( on the floor is the modifier of the verb sleeping)
  • The boy who is sleeping is my son.
The sleeping boy is my son.
(the verb sleeping has no modifier)

B / whom / which / that ———> object
* conveying the meaning of an obbligation
* conveying the meaning of a purpose : to verb . . .
Examples :
1 . I’ve got a lot of exercises that I have to finish before school.
I’ve got a lot of exercises to finish before school.
2 . I need a peg which I can hang my coat on.
I need a peg to hang my coat on.

C / Relative Clause ———> Noun Phrase (an Apposition)
1 . Ha Noi , which is the capital city of Viet Nam , is very ancient.
Ha Noi , the capital city of Viet Nam , is very ancient.
N N —> (an apposition)


EXERCISES ON THE REDUCED FORMS OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

A / REWRITE THE RELATIVE CLAUSES BY USING PHRASES :

  • The man who’s talking to the policeman has just returned home from Paris.
  • The boys who’re playing in the school-yard are in our class.
  • The novel which was bought by my sister is very interesting.
  • The students who make noise in class will be punished.
  • People who are waiting for the bus often shelter in my doorway.
  • Passengers who travelled on this bus bought their tickets in books.
  • Do you see the notice which warns people not to enter the military zone ?
  • There is a law which forbids hunting and fishing in this area.
  • The man who robbed you yesterday has been arrested.
  • The stairs which lead to the cellar are rather slippery.
  • We had a river in which we could swim.
  • The child is lonely; he’d be happier if he had someone that he could play with.
  • I’d be more interested if I had a family that I had to cook for.
  • I’ve got a bottle of wine, but I haven’t got anything with which I could open it.
  • I have some letters that I must write.
  • I don’t want to go alone; nor do I have anyone with whom I can go.
  • I don’t like my children playing in the streets. I wish I had a garden that they could play in.
  • We had to eat standing up b/c we hadn’t anything on which we could sit.
  • She didn’t buy any cards b/c she hadn’t anyone to whom she could send cards.
  • He was the first man who left the building which was burning.
  • You are the last person who saw her alive.
  • My brother was the only one who realized the danger.
  • The pilot was the only one who survived the air crash.
  • The last person who leaves the room must turn off the lights.
  • I was the only person who saw the difficulty.
  • He was the second man who was killed in this way.
  • Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon.
  • Lady Astor was the first woman who took her seat in Parliament.
  • The fifth man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable.

B / REPLACE THE PHRASE WITH A RELATIVE CLAUSE :

  • We have a lot of reports to finish before the boss returns.
  • He was the first student to finish the exercise.
  • She’s very busy b/c there is a lot of housework for her to do.
  • Where could we find a lake to swim in?
  • What was the name of the first spaceship to be launched into space?
  • This is the second car to be made in that factory.
  • I’m looking for a box to put these shoes in.
  • There are three more shirts for you to pack.
  • There’re five pairs of socks to put in.
  • He’s got a safe pocket to keep his passport in.
  • Here’s some small change for you to tip the porters.
  • Here’s an umbrella to use if it rains.
  • Is there anything for her to read on the plane.
  • He’s got a briefcase to keep his important papers in.